Specific Disorders in Reading

Reading Disabilities – Definitions & Terms:
If your child has received a diagnosis to indicate that they have a Specific Learning Disorder in Reading (DSM-5 assessment) or an Auditory/Language Processing Disorder (LDAC definition), the report will describe the specific subskills of reading your child may struggle with.

For a detailed description of Learning Disabilities definitions and terms, go to the website sections called:
About LD Definitions
Terms to Describe LDs

Dyslexia is the most common type of Learning Disability (Disorder) in Reading

Symptoms of Dyslexia

People with Dyslexia struggle with the foundational skills of phonemic awareness, word identification, and fluency.

That means they struggle with:
– Blending, breaking apart (segmenting,) or manipulating the individual sounds within a word
-Making accurate sound/letter associations when reading or spelling
-Reading words accurately and automatically
-Reading fluently, which means at a steady pace and with expression
-They have to put forth extra effort into reading.

Definition of Dyslexia

New Definition of Dyslexia in the U.S. in 2018
In the United States a new law (Public Law 115-391) was passed in 2018 that states:
“The term ‘dyslexia’ means an unexpected difficulty in reading for an individual who has the intelligence to be a much better reader, most commonly caused by a difficulty in the phonological processing (the appreciation of the individual sounds of spoken language), which affects the ability of an individual to speak, read, and spell.” https://dyslexia.yale.edu/advo

In 2002, the International Dyslexia Association defined Dyslexia as: “Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.” https://dyslexiaida.org

Incidence of Dyslexia in the Population:

‘‘Dyslexia is very common, affecting 15-20% of the population and representing 80– 90% of all those with learning disabilities. Scientific research shows differences in brain connectivity between dyslexic and typical reading children, providing a neurological basis for why reading fluently is a struggle for those with dyslexia.’’ http://dyslexia.yale.edu/dyslexia/what-is-dyslexia/

A Dyslexia Handbook

IDA Dyslexia Handbook: What Every Family Should Know was developed by the International Dyslexia Association (IDA).

‘In addition to offering valuable information about dyslexia and its characteristics, this handbook provides information on assessments, effective teaching approaches, self-advocacy ideas, and a vast array of resources. The handbook contains information that will be useful throughout a child’s life, from elementary school through college. The degree of difficulty a child with dyslexia has with reading, spelling, and/or speaking varies from person to person due to inherited differences in brain development, as well as the type of teaching the child receives.’